Mental health issues can affect one in four people at some point in their lives and have a significant impact on employee wellbeing. They are a major cause of long-term absence from work. Employers should promote good mental health and provide support for employees who are experiencing mental ill health including anxiety or depression.
This factsheet gives an overview of mental health issues in the workplace. It provides guidance on supporting employees’ mental health at work, including spotting early signs of mental ill health and training line managers. It emphasises the importance of making helpful adjustments at work and offers guidance on providing specialist help for employees who need it.
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What is mental health?
We all have mental health, just as we all have physical health. Both change throughout our lives, and like our bodies, our minds can become unwell. The World Health Organisation describes mental health as ‘a state of wellbeing in which every individual realises his or her own potential, can cope with the normal stresses of life, can work productively and fruitfully, and is able to make a contribution to her or his community’.
In 2017 the Government published an independent expert review of mental health and employers, Thriving at Work, to which the CIPD contributed. It concluded that the mental health at work challenge was much larger than previously thought. Our 2022 Health and wellbeing at work survey report, in partnership with Simplyhealth, found that more than 66% of HR professionals were concerned about the impact of COVID-19 on employees’ mental health.
Mental ill health can range from anxiety and depression, the most common conditions, to severe condition such as bipolar disorder or schizophrenia. The websites of organisations such as Mind and Rethink Mental Illness describe the most common physical and psychological aspects of different mental health conditions.
People with the same mental health condition can experience different symptoms, and to a different extent. This means that workplace support needs to be tailored to an individual’s specific needs.
There’s still stigma and misunderstanding about mental health in society and the workplace. Increasing awareness of mental health can help break the taboo and start to build a more open and inclusive culture. Managers need to feel confident and competent to have sensitive conversations with staff about sensitive issues like mental health and signpost to specialist sources of support if necessary. People professionals should ensure that employees know how to access the support provided by the organisation even if they don’t wish to disclose an issue to their manager. Our Employee resilience evidence review shows that key factors such as supportive co-workers and managers can help to protect people’s resilience.
There's a strong business, and moral, case for organisations to promote good physical and mental health for everyone. Actively promoting wellbeing leads to greater staff productivity, morale and retention, and reduced sickness absence and 'presenteeism'.
Mental health in the time of coronavirus
The COVID-19 pandemic has raised serious concerns about people’s mental wellbeing. The ongoing uncertainty continues to test many people's resilience, and many are still dealing with new job demands and personal challenges because of the pandemic. Since the onset of COVID, more organisations are stepping up their efforts to foster mentally healthy workplaces with wellbeing activity is increasingly focused on mental health.
Employers should ensure they have an effective framework in place to support people’s mental health, and offer sources of help such as counselling, an employee assistance programme and occupational health services where possible. They need to ensure line managers in particular have the ongoing guidance needed to support their teams, so they can have supportive and empathetic conversations with individuals and make work adjustments where needed. All employees should be encouraged to have a good self-care routine including a healthy approach to diet, relaxation and sleep.
Our guide Coronavirus (COVID-19): Mental health support for employees provides advice for employers. CIPD members can also use our Wellbeing helpline and resources. There’s more on what employers should be doing in our Responding to the coronavirus hub.
The UK legal position
Discrimination against those with mental health issues remains a problem in workplaces, even though a significant proportion of the workforce will face poor mental health during their working life.
In Great Britain, disability discrimination provisions in the Equality Act 2010 encompass many mental illnesses which can legally be classed as a disability. A range of conditions may qualify a person for protection under the Act providing there is a substantial and long-term effect (for at least a year) on their ability to carry out normal day-to-day tasks. Mental impairments do not need to be clinically well-recognised to qualify as a disability.
If an employee has a disability, their organisation has a responsibility to make reasonable adjustments to accommodate their needs – this includes those with mental health conditions. Find out more in our disability and employment factsheet. However, even if someone’s mental health condition has not been classed as a disability within the definition of the Act, it’s still good practice for an employer to make appropriate changes to their work or working pattern to support them in employment.
Supporting employees’ mental health at work
Employers should promote good mental health as well as providing support when an issue emerges. Listen to our podcast on promoting and supporting good mental health.
The Mental Health at Work Commitment provides a framework to help organisations put in place the key actions needed to support better mental health outcomes for employees, and links to practical tools to help implement each of the six standards. Signing the commitment sends a strong message to employees as well as the wider community that mental health is a priority for the organisation. Our Mental health at work hub has resources to help implement the six standards.
The UK government has launched a Voluntary Reporting framework to support employers to report on disability, mental health and disability. This will help to ensure that an employer’s approach to inclusive employment and progression is integrated across the organisation and taken seriously by managers and employees. See the advice hub launched by Acas and BEIS for advice on ensuring that workers with disabilities get the best support at work.
An organisation’s culture, and the extent of awareness and training around mental health, will affect whether employees and line managers have open and supportive conversations. Employers should take the key steps below to better support employees and demonstrate their commitment to promoting positive mental health.
Developing people managers’ skills
Our 2022 Health and wellbeing at work survey report, in partnership with Simplyhealth, finds that ‘management style’ is a main cause of work-related stress. This finding is a stark reminder of the negative impact people managers can have on people’s mental wellbeing, if they are not trained and supported to go about their management role in the right way.
Good people management can help manage and prevent stress which can be linked to common mental health conditions such as anxiety and depression.
Our practical line manager support materials are built on research showing the behaviours managers need to exhibit to engage staff and promote positive wellbeing. They will help managers to explore and develop their own management behaviours.
Our joint guidance with mental health charity Mind, People managers’ guide to mental health, contains information, practical advice and templates to help managers facilitate conversations about stress and poor mental health. It also sets out practical steps employers can take to create a mentally healthy workplace.
Our guidance for managers on preventing and reducing stress at work outlines the key steps they should take.
Spotting early signs of mental health issues
Employers and managers should be alert to the early signs of stress and mental ill health, and know how to respond. Early intervention can help prevent issues from escalating, but employers should not give advice about a mental health issue as they are rarely qualified to do so. The websites of Mind and Rethink Mental Illness give information on potential signs of mental ill health.
Signposting to support
It’s important that line managers have the knowledge and confidence to signpost an employee to more expert sources of support, for example recommending a GP visit or referral to occupational health.
Various mental health charities (see Useful contacts) also provide helpful resources for individuals, carers and employers.
Fit note and return to work
A fit note enables the GP to advise on the effects of the mental health condition and any changes the employer could make to help the individual return to work. The Social Security (Medical Evidence) and Statutory Sick Pay (Medical Evidence) (Amendment) Regulations 2022 came into force on 6 April 2022, removing the requirement for fit notes to be signed in ink, enabling them to be issued digitally. See more in our factsheet covering sickness-related absence.
Increasing awareness of how to access employer-funded support
Employers who offer an employee assistance programme and/or counselling services should ensure employees know how to access them.
Review job design and workloads
Our research shows that unmanageable workloads are the main cause of work-related stress. Providing meaningful work with realistic timescales will help to manage the risk of work-related stress. See our job design factsheet.
Promote awareness of mental health issues across the workforce
Promoting awareness and educating the whole workforce about mental health can help to reduce the stigma and replace common myths with facts.
Promote work-life balance
Long-hours working is not a sustainable way of operating and will take its toll on people. An appropriate balance between work and personal life means people remain refreshed and productive. See our working hours factsheet.
Offer flexible working
Offering more flexible working arrangements can be an adjustment for someone who needs support for mental ill health, and it can also help to prevent stress if someone wants a better work-life balance to suit their individual circumstances. See our flexible working factsheet.
Address the risk of suicide
Organisations should have a strategy to help prevent the risk of suicide as part of their mental health framework. If an employee dies by suicide, the impact on colleagues can be traumatic, so organisations also need to have a framework in place to support people after a suicide. See the CIPD guides for people professionals and line managers on responding to suicide risk in the worklace.
Making mental health a part of wider wellbeing at work
A wellbeing policy should cover both physical and mental health. It should:
- Begin with a clear statement which commits the organisation to fostering a working environment that promotes employee health and wellbeing.
- Be championed by senior management.
- Be kept under constant review.
- Outline the responsibilities of key stakeholders including senior leaders, people professionals, occupational health and employees.
- Set out the available advice, support and training to enhance employee wellbeing.
- Incorporate the process for evaluating the effectiveness of all wellbeing initiatives.
An organisation’s approach to wellbeing should treat people as individuals with varying needs and who require tailored support. There's more in our wellbeing at work factsheet.
Due to fear of discrimination, or for other personal reasons, potential employees may disclose a mental health issue in their application or at the interview stage. The organisation should:
- Make clear, when attracting candidates, that it’s committed to fostering a mentally healthy workplace and supporting anyone with a mental health issue.
- Make clear it’s willing to make adjustments for applicants and that this policy includes people with a mental health condition.
- Ensure all employees understand the concept of adjustment and that managers have the confidence to discuss suitable adjustments.
When creating job descriptions and person specifications, care is needed to allow for reasonable adjustments to accommodate people with a mental health issue. It’s important to distinguish between essential and desirable requirements for the job, and focus on what is to be achieved rather than how.
As someone with a mental health issue may not have attended an interview for some time, the organisation should:
- Allow an applicant to be accompanied and/or to have additional time to undertake a selection test.
- Appreciate that someone with a mental health condition may understandably have gaps in their employment history.
- Provide the appropriate environment to try to ensure an applicant is able to demonstrate fully their ability to do the job.
Adjustments at work
A manager needs to have a supportive conversation with the employee about how their mental health condition impacts their work and what adjustments could help. This should be a two-way discussion about the nature of the adjustment required, but managers need to respect confidentiality.
Examples of more typical workplace adjustments for line managers and employees to explore and agree together include:
- Adjustments to working hours or patterns.
- Adjusting someone’s duties if some cause too much pressure.
- Providing a mentor.
- Temporary part-time hours.
- Working from home.
- Job sharing.
- Minimising noise or providing a quiet working space.
- Increasing supervision and support.
It's wise to document the reasonable adjustments that have been agreed.
Useful contacts and further reading
Books and reports
COOPER, C. and HESKETH, I. (2019) Wellbeing at work: how to design, implement and evaluate an effective strategy . London: Kogan Page and CIPD.
RACE, M-C, and FURNHAM, A. (2014) Mental illness at work: a manager’s guide to identifying, managing and preventing psychological problems in the workplace. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
Visit the CIPD and Kogan Page Bookshop to see all our priced publications currently in print.
BASKA, M. (2019) Employees still scared to open up about mental health, says survey. People Management (online). 13 August.
CHURCHILL, F. (2019) Workers call in physically sick to hide mental ill-health, poll reveals. People Management (online). 29 August.
DONALDSON-FEILDER, E. and LEWIS, R. (2016) Taking the lead on mental health: the role of leaders and line managers. Occupational Health & Wellbeing. Vol 68, No 7, July. pp16-17.
O’KANE, O. (2021) Is a mental health pandemic in the workplace on the horizon? People Management (online). 17 February.
CIPD members can use our online journals to find articles from over 300 journal titles relevant to HR.
Members and People Management subscribers can see articles on the People Management website.
This factsheet was last updated by Rachel Suff: Senior Employee Relations Adviser, CIPD
Rachel informs CIPD policy thinking on health and wellbeing as well as employment relations. She has over 20 years’ experience in the employment and HR arena.
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