Selected cases on disability discrimination in the workplace
For employment purposes in the UK, disability is defined as a physical or mental impairment which has a substantial and long-term adverse effect on a person's ability to carry out normal day-to-day activities. It covers physical disability, some medical conditions and mental illness. Disability discrimination has been illegal in the UK since 1995, with the law now incorporated into the Equality Act 2010.
This factsheet offers an overview of the different types of discrimination with examples of how they apply to disability discrimination. It suggests good employment practices to ensure everyone has fair access and opportunity to progress in work, such as making reasonable adjustments to accommodate the needs of a disabled individual and asking medical questions at the pre-employment stage. The factsheet also encourages employers to challenge stereotypical thinking and provides recommendations for positive progress as well as an action plan.
The moral case for building fairer, more inclusive labour markets and workplaces is indisputable. Everyone deserves the same opportunities to develop their skills and talents to their full potential, work in a safe, supportive and inclusive environment, be fairly rewarded and recognised for their work, and have a meaningful voice on matters affecting them.
But it’s also vital for the sustainability of businesses and economies: when we embrace and value the diversity of thoughts, ideas and ways of working that a diverse mix of people bring to an organisation, everyone stands to benefit. In addition to the cost to individuals of facing prejudice or bias as a result of missing out on job opportunities, factors such as an ageing workforce and expected restrictions on employers’ ability to recruit talent across the EU mean that creating more-inclusive workplaces is becoming even more important.
Having a disability shouldn’t bar people from getting jobs, being trained or receiving good customer service. It’s in the best interests of any organisation to understand and respond positively, in practical and reasonable ways, to disability-related issues. Being a genuinely inclusive employer will benefit an organisation’s reputation and brand, impacting their ability to recruit great people and being attractive to customers.
The CIPD is a Disability Confident employer, proud of our work to demonstrate diversity and inclusion in the workplace. We have a broad Diversity and Inclusion Group, which includes representatives from HR and a subgroup focussing on disability issues.
What is disability?
Disability is defined in different ways for different purposes. For employment purposes, the UK definition is contained in the Equality Act 2010: a person is ‘disabled’ if they have a physical or mental impairment which has a substantial and long-term adverse effect on their ability to carry out normal day-to-day activities.
‘Long-term’ means that the condition must last, or be likely to last, for more than 12 months, or is likely to last for the rest of the life of the person affected.
Individuals with cancer, multiple sclerosis or HIV/AIDS are covered from the date of diagnosis regardless of the impact that the illness is having on their life at the time of diagnosis. The definition of disability is therefore very broad. This means that many other conditions could also potentially be covered, including, for example, chronic fatigue syndrome, schizophrenia, arthritis, diabetes, epilepsy, dyslexia, severe nut allergies, eczema, depression.
To be covered under the Act, a condition doesn’t have to be clinically well recognised or diagnosed. Employers should focus on the effects an employee is experiencing at work, not on the disability or condition from which those symptoms may emerge. Many people with a disability or condition which could potentially be covered by the Act may not necessarily identify as or consider themselves to be ’disabled‘, even though they may still need adjustments to support them in the workplace. In practice, this means that employers may need to make adjustments for employees who do not say or think they are ’disabled‘.
The legal position
In Great Britain, discrimination on the grounds of disability, originally introduced by the Disability Discrimination Act 1995, is now contained within the Equality Act 2010.
The Equality and Human Rights Commission has published a range of guidance on all aspects of the Equality Act, including a Code of practice on employment. Whilst not legally binding documents, the codes give important guidance on good practice and failure to follow them may be taken into account by tribunals or courts. CIPD members can find out more in our Disability discrimination law Q&As.
In the referendum on 23 June 2016 the UK voted to leave the EU. Our Brexit hub has more on what the implications might be for employment law.
Types of discrimination
Within the Equality Act 2010 there are a number of different types of discrimination. These apply to the protected characteristics, which include disability.
This applies to all protected characteristics. It's treating someone less favourably than another person because of a protected characteristic that they have. For example, it's deciding not to recruit an individual because they are disabled.
Indirect discrimination occurs when:
- a provision, criterion or practice is applied to all, and:
- it puts a group with a protected characteristic at a disadvantage when compared with another group
- an individual is put at a disadvantage
- the employer cannot show it to be a proportionate means of achieving a legitimate aim.
For example, indirect disability discrimination could occur if all employees are required to arrive at work at 08:00 and someone who is disabled has difficulty travelling in the rush hour to arrive on time. That employee’s working hours could be changed so they could start and finish later. Enforcing the specific hours might indirectly discriminate against a disabled person unless the hours can be justified.
Discrimination arising from disability
It's discriminatory to treat someone less favourably because of something connected with their disability. For example, dismissing someone for making spelling mistakes owing to their dyslexia. It is justifiable only if the employer can show that it is a proportionate means of achieving a legitimate aim.
This is treating someone less favourably because they associate with an individual who has a protected characteristic. For example, treating someone less favourably because their child has a disability and they sometimes have to leave work to deal with a problem.
This is treating someone less favourably because it’s perceived that they have a protected characteristic, whether they do or not. For example, refusing to appoint someone because it is thought that they are disabled when they’re not.
Victimisation occurs when someone is treated less favourably because they’ve made or supported a complaint, or raised a grievance under the Equality Act 2010. It also applies if it’s thought that they have made a complaint. A comparator isn’t required for a claim of victimisation. Post-employment victimisation can occur - for example refusing to give a reference to someone who had made a complaint under the Equality Act 2010 - although the Act has some grey areas concerning post-employment victimisation.
Harassment is ‘unwanted conduct related to a relevant protected characteristic, which has the purpose or effect of violating an individual’s dignity or creating an intimidating, hostile, degrading, humiliating or offensive environment for that individual’.
There’s no longer any specific legislation making employers liable for harassment that comes from a third party (for example, a customer). However an employer can still be liable as a result of numerous other legal duties, for example breach of contract, direct discrimination and under the Protection from Harassment Act 1997. This, and good practice, mean that employers should continue to take steps to protect employees from all forms of harassment.
Find out more in our factsheet on workplace bullying and harassment.
Where there is an Occupational Requirement to employ a person with a particular protected characteristic, certain very limited exceptions from the law are permitted covering selection, promotion and training. The employer must be able to show that there's a genuine need, taking account of the type of work.
Case law in the area of disability discrimination continues to develop.
Employers can take positive action, for example to address under-representation or other forms of disadvantage within the workforce. The provisions are complex and must be handled carefully. Different provisions apply concerning positive action relating to recruitment and promotion. See the guidance from Citizen’s Advice.
Good employment practices
As part of coherent diversity, inclusion and employee engagement strategies, employers should undertake thorough reviews or equality analyses of policies and working practices to remove unfair discrimination and bias. HR have a key role in creating open workplace cultures where to be different is not a problem but an asset. Feedback from employees with disabilities and long-term conditions should be included to foster an open and inclusive workplace culture.
Although there’s no legal requirement to have a written diversity policy, it’s a good idea to produce one to demonstrate the organisation takes its legal and moral obligations towards being a diverse employer seriously. It can also encourage employees to treat others equally.
Making reasonable adjustments
UK employers have a responsibility to make adjustments to accommodate the needs of a person with a disability. Employers are required to understand the barriers an employee is experiencing and put adjustments in place to resolve them. Employers should involve the employee in discussions about adjustments although the duty to make adjustments is ultimately the employer’s.
The legal requirement is to make adjustments that are ‘reasonable’. This duty falls to the organisation as a whole, not just a line manager in a department, so the resources (including finances and equipment) of the whole organisation need to be taken into account when deciding what is ‘reasonable’.
Reasonable adjustments must be considered with a specific individual and their specific role in mind. Adjustments can include :
- Altering premises – such as automated doors, providing ramps, quiet spaces, alternative formats of signage or directions around the building.
- Altering assessment procedures – such as giving extra time, providing assistive technology or ergonomic equipment.
- Training or mentoring – to support an employee to use new adjustments (such as speech to text software), or coping strategies (common with, for example, dyslexia or mental health conditions).
- Modified or specialist equipment – such as supportive chairs, height-adjustable or standing desks.
- Communication – providing an interpreter (for people who are, for example, deaf or who have a speech impairment).
- Time off during working hours – for example, for hospital appointments, physiotherapy, counselling, or treatment.
- Flexible working or adjusted hours.
A line manager along with the employee and, for example, occupational health, may come up with a range of adjustments that might remove the barrier the employee with a disability or condition is experiencing, but the employer needs to make an evidence-based decision if these adjustments are ‘reasonable’.
Pre-employment medical questionnaires
The Equality Act 2010 made it unlawful to issue pre-employment medical questionnaires, except in some limited circumstances. Before offering employment, health-related questions can only be asked to:
- help decide whether there's a need to make reasonable adjustments to the selection process
- help decide whether an applicant can carry out an essential part of the job
- monitor diversity amongst applicants
- take positive action to address a current under-representation among disabled people in the workforce
- ensure that an individual has a disability if there's a genuine requirement to have a disability (for example, a mental health counsellor being required to have experience of mental health issues).
Challenging stereotypical thinking
Stereotypical thinking and unaddressed unconscious bias can lead to bad decision-making. Employers should meet the needs of each employee with a disability or condition individually and identify solutions that will work for the person and the business.
- Disability shouldn't be confused with ill-health. Disability can affect health in different ways, and often is not health-related at all.
- Disability is broad and may not be visible or immediately obvious. For example, a very small percentage of people with disabilities are wheelchair users or Braille users.
- More people acquire their impairment or condition during their adult life than those who are born with them.
- A disability or condition can affect different people in different ways. Therefore, when making adjustments, consider the individual and their specific circumstances, not their condition.
- Corporate image and reputation can be seriously damaged or enhanced by the negative or positive experiences people with disabilities and their friends, families, and carers have of your organisation, especially with the increased use of social media and sites such as Glassdoor.
- Mental health problems affect a significant proportion of the population and stress-related illness has overtaken musculoskeletal conditions as the main cause of absence in the UK workforce as a whole.
- People with disabilities continue to find it significantly more difficult to get a job than able-bodied people, because employers fail to approach the management of disability positively.
- It’s possible to make simple changes to jobs and the way they’re carried out in order to successfully employ someone with a disability or long-term condition without serious cost, or even at no cost at all. Funding for workplace adjustments is available to most UK employers through Access to Work.
Recommendations for positive progress
To manage disability successfully, organisations should ensure line managers are appropriately trained with the skills to manage employees effectively and the knowledge to understand their legal obligations as well as their employer’s policy expectations. Disability ‘awareness’ training on its own is not enough: line managers need to know how to navigate conversations about disability and conditions with employees and understand what they need to do in order to arrange and implement adjustments.
An action plan
- Review your organisation’s policy on disability in the workplace and your current process for making adjustments for employees. Identify whether or not it is fit-for purpose and if it is effective in meeting the needs of the business whilst supporting employees.
- Review related existing policies and practices which may have an impact on employees with a disability or long term condition – for example, recruitment and selection, sickness and attendance, performance, grievance, bullying and harassment, and diversity and inclusion. Actively involving (not just passively 'listening') to disabled people's views is a crucial part of reviewing existing policies and procedures.
- Identify from this review an action plan for change and assign accountability to people in senior roles who can facilitate change.
- Follow good recruitment practice such as the ‘Barrier-free Recruitment Charter’ Recruitment protocol launched by the Business Disability Forum. Our Recruitment factsheet also outlines good practice.
- Disability inclusion is a rapidly moving area with many UK businesses excelling in this field. Network with other employers who are developing disability-related workplace practices to share learning and experiences and keep up to date with good practice and legal developments.
Useful contacts and further reading
The following have resources and services to advise organisations or support people with disabilities in the workplace. There are many other organisations which offer detailed information and workplace advice about specific disabilities.
Disability Confident - a Government national level voluntary initiative to engage employer action in progressing inclusive policies and practices for people with disabilities, which is supported by the CIPD
The Disability ClearKit - developed in association with the Department for Work and Pensions, is the result of three years in-depth research with 220 leading employers
Books and reports
ACAS (2015) Disability discrimination: key points for the workplace. London: Acas
BUSINESS DISABILITY FORUM (2015) State of the nation: retaining and developing employees with disabilities – Stage 1. London: Business Disability Forum.
BUSINESS DISABILITY FORUM (2015) State of the nation: retaining and developing employees with disabilities – Stage 2. London: Business Disability Forum.
BUSINESS DISABILITY FORUM (2015) Square holes for square pegs: current practice in employment and autism. London: Business Disability Forum.
COLEMAN, N., SYKES, W. and GROOM, C. (2013) Barriers to employment and unfair treatment at work: a quantitative analysis of disabled people's experiences. Research report 88. London: Equality and Human Rights Commission.
LEIGH DAY. (2014) The Purple Workforce: a report by Leigh Day into the attitudes of disabled people on their role in the workforce. London: Leigh Day.
RUBENSTEIN, M. (2017) Discrimination: a guide to the relevant case law. 30th ed. London: Michael Rubenstein Publishing.
WRIGHT, J. (2016) Disability discrimination law. 3rd ed. London: Lulu Press.
BACON, N., HOGUE, K., WASS, V. and JONES, M. (2017) Are high performance work practices (HPWPs) enabling or disabling? Exploring the relationship between selected HPWPs and work-related disability disadvantage. Human Resource Management.
BUTLER, M. (2014) Obesity: is it a disability? Tolley's Employment Law Newsletter. Vol 19, No 10, August. pp78-79.
CHOUDHRY, A. (2015) Diabetes at work: how to avoid disability discrimination. Employers' Law. October. pp14-15.
Disability discrimination law: a timeline, (2015) IDS Employment Law Brief HR. No 1033, November pp10-11.
LAWSON, A. (2011) Disability and employment in the Equality Act 2010: opportunities seized, lost and generated. Industrial Law Journal. Vol 40, No 4, December. pp359-383.
CIPD members can use our online journals to find articles from over 300 journal titles relevant to HR.
Members and People Management subscribers can see articles on the People Management website.
This factsheet was last updated by Angela Matthews of the Business Disability Forum, Jill Miller and Lisa Ayling, solicitor and employment law specialist.
Business Disability Forum
Business Disability Forum builds disability-smart organisations to improve business performance by increasing confidence, accessibility, productivity and profitability.
It has more than twenty years’ experience of working with public and private sector organisations, formerly as the Employers’ Forum on Disability. Our members employ almost 20% of the UK workforce and, together, we seek to remove the barriers between public and private organisations and disabled people. We do this by bringing together business people, disabled opinion leaders and government to understand what needs to change if disabled people are to be treated fairly so that they can contribute to business success, to society and to economic growth.
Business Disability Forum provides pragmatic support by sharing expertise, giving advice, providing training and facilitating networking opportunities. This helps organisations become fully inclusive to disabled customers and employees.
Dr Jill Miller: Diversity and Inclusion Adviser
Jill joined the CIPD in 2008. Her role is a combination of rigorous research and active engagement with policy makers, academics and practitioners to inform projects and shape thinking.
She frequently presents on key people management issues, leads discussions and workshops, and is invited to write for trade press as well as offer comment to national journalists, on radio and TV. She specialises in diversity and inclusion, employee well-being, people management in SMEs and future HR trends.
Explore our related content
Disability Confident employer
The CIPD is a Disability Confident Leader. We work with the DWP and lead the way in changing attitudes towards disability, and to encourage all employers to provide opportunities to ensure that people with disabilities and those with long-term health conditions are able to fulfil their potential at work. We regularly review our own people practices and approaches to ensure that our workplace is as open, diverse, accessible and inclusive as possible.