Understand how shared parental leave works, from the amount of leave parents can take to the eligibility criteria involved
Statutory maternity, paternity and adoption rights apply to leave granted to parents both before and after birth or adoption. The rights provide parents with the time needed to maintain family responsibilities while keeping their right to return to work. Fathers, adoptive parents and same-sex partners are entitled to paternity or maternity leave, adoption and shared parental leave.
This factsheet provides an introduction to maternity and paternity rights, including leave and pay both before and after childbirth. It outlines shared parental leave and looks briefly at adoption rights, which are now broadly in line with statutory maternity leave and pay. Lastly, the factsheet offers guidance for employers on implementing, monitoring and reviewing these policies.
Working parents represent a considerable proportion of the UK workforce but many find it difficult to balance the demands of work and childcare. The introduction of shared parental leave in 2015 had the potential to encourage a greater number of new fathers to play a more equal role in bringing up their children. However, our research shows that, on average, just 5% of eligible new dads had taken up their right to SPL, with many likely to be discouraged from doing so for financial reasons.
Employers should ensure that they are creative and innovative in supporting and retaining talented employees who need to balance work with family commitments. Aside from enhancing minimum statutory leave and pay entitlements where possible, employers can make a real difference to working parents by providing flexible working arrangements and fostering an inclusive, family-friendly working environment.
Overall, policies on parental leave should be inclusive and coherent, and employers should train managers to ensure they understand their responsibilities in delivering their organisation’s policies in supporting working parents.
The context for maternity, paternity and adoption rights
Women employees in the UK have had statutory maternity rights for many years. Fathers and adoptive parents now have statutory rights to paternity leave, adoption and shared parental leave. These rights also apply within partnerships of the same sex, so references in this factsheet to ‘father’, ‘male employee’, ‘men’, ‘he’, ‘him’, etc., should be taken as including women in same-sex partnerships.
As well as maternity, paternity and adoption rights, there are other important ‘family-friendly’ measures, including the right to unpaid parental leave, the right to time off for emergencies involving dependents and the right to request flexible working.
The legal position
Most of the relevant UK legislation is consolidated into the Employment Rights Act 1996, the Employment Relations Act 1999, the Employment Act 2002 and the Work and Families Act 2006. Shared parental leave (SPL) arrangements are covered in the Children and Families Act 2014.
CIPD members can find out more detail on SPL and all aspects of maternity, paternity and adoption leave and pay and other changes, in our Maternity, paternity, shared parental and adoption leave and pay Q&As, Requesting flexible working Q&As and Parental rights and other family-friendly provisions Q&As.
In the referendum on 23 June 2016 the UK voted to leave the EU. Our Brexit hub has more on what the implications might be for employment law.
Shared parental leave was expected to be extended to grandparents by 2018, allowing parents to share their leave and pay with one nominated working grandparent. But a consultation on the issue scheduled for May 2016 failed to materialise, and the current government has so far not pursued the idea.
However the government is backing a Parental Bereavement (Leave and Pay) Bill now progressing through Parliament. This will give employed parents two weeks’ statutory bereavement leave, paid at the statutory rate if the parent has 26 weeks’ service. CIPD members are strongly supportive of this statutory provision being introduced for bereaved parents. Currently workers can take a ‘reasonable’ amount of unpaid leave following the death of a child. Although the new legislation is a private members’ bill, parental bereavement leave was a Conservative government manifesto commitment, and it is supporting the Bill. The new rights are likely to become available in 2020.
There are various descriptions used for maternity leave in the UK. Key terms are:
Compulsory leave: a period of two weeks (four weeks if the woman works in a factory) immediately after giving birth during which the woman is not permitted to work.
Statutory Maternity Leave (SML): the term for the 52 weeks of leave a woman may take. There is no qualifying period for the 52 weeks but there is a qualifying period for some of the statutory maternity pay.
Shared Parental Leave (SPL): the term for shared maternity and paternity leave available to either parent.
The earliest date a woman can start maternity leave is the beginning of the eleventh week before the baby is expected. She must provide her employer with details of the week the baby is expected and the start date of her maternity leave. The employer must respond to this notification within 28 days and state the date by which the woman is expected to return to work after her maternity leave entitlement ends.
Employers should assume that an employee will take all 52 weeks of her SML entitlement unless notified to the contrary. Employees may wish to curtail part of their SML to enable their partner to take SPL. Alternatively, they may decide to return earlier than the date they originally notified, in which case the employee should give at least eight weeks’ notice, unless the employer agrees to shorten this period.
Mothers in the UK who qualify are entitled to up to 39 weeks' Statutory Maternity Pay (SMP). To qualify, the employee must:
- work for an employer who is liable (or would be liable but for the employee's low earnings) to pay the employer’s share of Class 1 National Insurance contributions
- have average weekly earnings in the eight weeks, up to and including the qualifying week, at or above the lower earnings limit for the payment of National Insurance contributions
- have 26 weeks' continuous service with her employer (assessed at the 15th week before the week the baby is due).
The first six weeks of SMP is paid at 90% of average weekly earnings and the remainder at the lower statutory level (or 90% of the average weekly earnings, if this is less than the lower level). SMP rates have historically increased in April each year and did so in 2017 but were not changed in 2016. Current rates can be found on our Statutory rates page or from GOV.UK.
Women who do not qualify for SMP might qualify for Maternity Allowance (MA): this is based on their recent employment and earnings record and is a state benefit which is payable for 39 weeks. To qualify, a woman must:
- be employed but not qualify for SMP
- be self-employed, or have been recently employed
- have been employed or self-employed for at least 26 of the 66 weeks ending with the week before the expected week of childbirth
- earn at least a specified amount per week (set by the Government and currently £30 or more) on average in any 13 weeks in the test period.
Some organisations have more generous contractual terms and pay a woman during all her SML.
Other benefits during maternity leave
All contractual terms (for example holidays or benefits) apart from remuneration continue during SML. The position concerning pension contributions is more complex. CIPD members can see more in our law Q&As on on maternity, paternity, shared parental and adoption leave and pay.
Other rights before, during and after maternity
In addition to maternity leave and pay, women employees who satisfy the relevant qualifying conditions are entitled to time off to attend ante-natal care appointments, at their normal rate of pay on producing proof of the appointment, and to:
- return to the job in which they were previously employed on the same benefits, terms and conditions, if returning from the first 26 weeks of SML
- return to the same job, or one with no less favourable terms and conditions if it is genuinely not reasonably practicable for them to return to their former job, if returning from the later part of SML
- request a risk assessment during pregnancy
- request alternative work where any risks to the health of the expectant mother and baby can be avoided
- full pay while on suspension on maternity grounds if health and safety measures cannot be complied with or reasonable steps to alter working conditions, or offer suitable alternative work, doesn’t avoid the risk
- not be subjected to a detriment, disadvantage, unfair treatment or dismissal because of the pregnancy, maternity leave, etc.
- take up to ten ‘keeping in touch’ (KIT) days during maternity leave without losing any entitlement to maternity pay. The employer is not obliged to offer any KIT days and the employee is not obliged to work any that are offered.
In addition, the Equality Act 2010 prohibits pregnancy and maternity discrimination. Most employers recognise the importance of gender equality, but pregnancy and maternity disadvantage is still evident in some workplaces.
The main eligibility factors for basic paternity leave in the UK are:
- continuous employment for 26 weeks ending with the 15th week before the baby is due
- the man must be the baby’s biological father or the partner/husband of the mother
- the man has (or expects to have) responsibility for the baby’s upbringing.
The maximum duration of the basic statutory leave is two weeks. Unless agreed otherwise, paternity leave must be taken between:
- the date of the baby’s birth or any day of the week following the birth, and
- within 56 days of the baby’s birth date.
The employee must inform the employer of their intention to take paternity leave by the end of the fifteenth week before the baby is expected. The employee must provide the following details:
- the start date of the leave to be taken
- the week the baby is expected
- the duration of leave to be taken.
The rate of Statutory Paternity Pay (SPP) is the same as SMP. However, an employee who does not qualify for SPP may be entitled to other welfare benefits.
Rights during and after paternity leave
A male employee who qualifies for paternity leave is entitled to:
- return to the same job
- return to the same terms and conditions of employment
- not be subjected to a disadvantage, unfair treatment or dismissal.
Qualifying fathers are also entitled to unpaid parental leave of up to 18 weeks for each child or adopted child up to their 18th birthday.
Shared parental leave
Shared parental leave (SPL) may also be available. The basic principle is that employed mothers can switch part of their SML and SMP into SPL and shared parental pay, provided the parents satisfy the eligibility requirements. The mother and partner must have worked for their employers continuously for at least 26 weeks up to the 15th week before the expected week of childbirth.
The mother can choose whether to give up her SML and the parents can choose how they share any SPL, either taking it in turns or taking time off together. The notification procedures are complex but at least eight weeks’ notice must be given before the start of SPL.
CIPD members can find out more in our shared parental leave factsheet.
Statutory adoption leave and pay in the UK have been broadly in line with statutory maternity leave and pay since April 2015.
The employee who is the primary adopter can take paid time off for up to five adoption appointments. The other adopter can take unpaid time off for up to two appointments.
Qualifying employees may take up to 52 weeks' adoption leave. Some surrogate parents are also entitled to adoption leave.
If a couple jointly adopt a child, one adoptive parent may take adoption leave and the other may be able to take paternity leave and shared parental leave in broadly the same way as they do following the birth of a child (see above).
Statutory Adoption Pay (SAP) is payable for 39 weeks and there is a qualifying service requirement of 26 weeks’ continuous employment. The rate of SAP is the same as SMP (see above). Adopters whose average weekly earnings are below the lower earnings limit for National Insurance purposes do not qualify for SAP but may qualify for other welfare benefits.
Benefits during adoption leave
The rules covering non-cash benefits applicable during adoption leave are essentially the same as those applicable during maternity leave.
Guidance for employers
Include references to maternity, paternity and adoption rights in equality, diversity and work-life balance policies.
Monitor and evaluate take up of policies to ensure that they:
- comply with any extensions and alterations to these rights as they occur
- continue to meet the needs of both the business and the individual
- don’t exclude some employees or cause unfair disadvantage.
Make sure that line managers understand their responsibilities in delivering their organisation’s policies, and know how to access further information and guidance. Staff handbooks and employment literature should explain the provisions clearly and invite people to raise issues they do not understand.
Recovery of SMP, SPP, and SAP
An employer is able to recover the cost of SMP, SPP and SAP from the Government. The amount that can be recovered depends on the annual National Insurance payments made by the employer.
Useful contacts and further reading
CABRITA, J. and WOHLGEMUTH, F. (2015) Promoting uptake of parental and paternity leave among fathers in the European Union. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union.
DEPARTMENT FOR BUSINESS, INNOVATION AND SKILLS. (2015) Shared parental leave: public attitudes. London: BIS.
DEPARTMENT FOR BUSINESS, INNOVATION AND SKILLS and EQUALITY AND HUMAN RIGHTS COMMISSION. (2016) Pregnancy and maternity-related discrimination and disadvantage: final reports. London: BIS and EHRC.
INCOMES DATA SERVICES. (2015) Maternity and parental rights. Employment law handbook. London: IDS.
CHARLTON, J. (2014) Questions remain over shared parental leave. Employers' Law. March. pp12-13.
ELLIOT, T. (2014/15) Expectant mothers excused. Employers' Law. December/January. pp18-19.
What new parents can expect in best pay and practice policies. (2014) Workplace Report. No 127, September. pp15-17.
Work and pregnancy: discrimination. (2017) IDS Employment Law Brief HR. No 1075, August. pp13-18.
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Members and People Management subscribers can see articles on the People Management website.
This factsheet was last updated by Lisa Ayling, solicitor and employment law specialist, and by Rachel Suff.
Rachel Suff: Employee Relations Adviser
Rachel joined the CIPD as a policy adviser in 2014 to increase the CIPD’s public policy profile and engage with politicians, civil servants, policy-makers and commentators to champion better work and working lives. An important part of her role is to ensure that the views of the profession inform CIPD policy thinking in ER areas such as health and well-being, employee engagement and employment relations.
As well as developing policy on UK employment issues, she helps guide the CIPD’s thinking in relation to European developments affecting the world of work. Rachel is a qualified HR practitioner and researcher; her prior roles include working as a researcher/editor for XpertHR and as a senior policy adviser at Acas.
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