The CIPD’s first comprehensive survey of the UK workforce under our new Job Quality Index
Line managers have a very important role to play, not only in the day-to-day management of people and operations but also in the implementation of HR policies, particularly in organisations where there’s a devolution of HR activities towards line management. It's therefore important that proper consideration is given to the way line managers are selected, developed and managed on an ongoing basis.
This factsheet outlines the roles and responsibilities of line managers and explores the relationship between HR and line management, including opportunities to work together to support business strategy. It also stresses the importance of positive relationships between line managers and the employees they manage, and highlights key considerations for supporting line managers in developing vital people management skills.
Line managers are increasingly taking on many ‘traditional’ HR and L&D responsibilities. As HR and L&D professionals focus on the more strategic issues, line managers translate the policies into day-to-day practices. The fundamental paradox of line managers’ involvement in people management and development is that they’re expected to engage with and demonstrate consistency against the overall organisational policy, while at the same time tailoring their approach to individuals and teams.
This paradox is inherent to the nature of people management and development, so it is HR’s and L&D’s role to ensure that line managers are supported to perform their role well. Line managers need to be carefully selected, paying particular attention to people management behaviours, and to be supported by strong organisational values that show clearly the behaviours expected, as well as those not encouraged. Managers should have clear job responsibilities, access to relevant and just-in-time training, and receive regular feedback. As they are often the ’face’ of HR to the employees they supervise, line managers should be kept updated on the organisation’s people management policies and be clear on what’s expected in implementing them.
Who are line managers?
Line managers have responsibility for directly managing individual employees or teams. In turn, they report to a higher level of management on the performance and well-being of the employees or teams they manage.
The term ‘front-line manager’ or ‘first-line manager’ normally refers to those who supervise and manage employees who themselves have no supervisory responsibilities.
Typically the management responsibilities carried out by line managers (particularly front-line managers) might include:
- day-to-day people management
- managing operational costs
- providing technical expertise
- allocating work and rotas
- monitoring work and checking quality
- dealing with customers/clients
- measuring operational performance
- developing their people.
Increasingly managers are also responsible for managing health and well-being of their teams, preventing ill health, introducing adjustments to workloads and ways of working when required, and seeking support from occupational health services to deal with cases of ill health. Our 2016 Absence management survey highlighted this expectation: more survey respondents said giving line managers primary responsibility for managing absence and giving sickness absence information to line managers were among their most effective approaches for managing short-term and long-term absence in their organisation.
The evolving relationship between line managers, HR and L&D
There are number of areas of people management practice, where the processes may be designed by HR or L&D specialists, but cannot be delivered by them. These include, for example, performance management and recognition, employee engagement, enabling employee voice, creating and maintaining a learning culture, and achieving employee work-life balance.
Relationship between HR and line managers
The relationship between the HR function and line managers has been subject to a number of changes and tensions in recent years. Adjustments in the delivery of HR have shifted responsibility for many core activities, such as recruitment or objective setting, away from HR. Furthermore, the trend towards individualisation of the employment relationship has placed new burdens and opportunities in the hands of line managers. An obvious example is, with collective pay-setting provisions giving way to individual performance-related pay awards in many organisations, the role of each employee’s line manager has become increasingly influential in determining individual pay increases.
The practice among many organisations of outsourcing transactional HR activities has also had the effect of devolving more responsibility to line managers to maintain records, input data and manage routine HR activities such as staffing requests, booking training or submitting payroll information. When outsourcing is working well, and managers have appropriate resources, it enables them to access better and more timely information and support to carry out people management tasks and manage their staff more effectively. At the same time, where managers’ workloads do not allow them time to collect relevant information, or the systems used to keep records are cumbersome or inaccessible, there is a risk that the organisation does not have an accurate grasp on people data.
Relationship between L&D and line managers
The relationship between the L&D function and line managers has also seen a shift. Previously, with L&D as course providers, managers had no role within learning, even though it could be argued managers should always show interest in embedding any course-based learning back in the workplace. However, managers are increasingly expected to have a coaching role with their teams and people development has become part of their responsibility. L&D’s role in this relationship has become ‘upskilling’ the line managers, to act as coaches and trainers, passing the skills they’ve already learnt onto their teams. L&D professionals are now more consultative in their approach and as such they have a closer relationship with line managers, working together with them to provide a wider range of learning solutions to fit individuals’ and team needs.
The role of line managers in implementing HR and L&D processes
Line managers can make a significant difference in:
- enabling HR and L&D policies and practices and 'bringing them to life'
- enabling learning solutions to happen
- identifying learning needs and embedding learning in the workflow
- acting upon advice or guidance from HR and L&D
- controlling the workflow by directing and guiding the work of others.
Line managers and individual performance
Initial research carried out for us by a team at Bath University and reported in Bringing policies to life: the vital role of front line managers in people management, found that front-line managers play a pivotal role in terms of implementing and enacting HR policies and practices. Where employees feel positive about their relationship with their front line managers, they're more likely to have higher levels of job satisfaction, commitment and loyalty – which are in turn associated with higher levels of performance or 'discretionary' behaviour. Discretionary behaviour is defined as that which goes beyond the requirements of the job to give the extra performance that can boost ‘the bottom line’ (or profit levels). Our subsequent work with Bath University explored the role that line managers play in people management in two key areas: reward and learning and development.
Our review of evidence on effective performance management approaches also points at the critical role of line managers in assessing and recognising performance. Practices include setting specific and challenging goals, monitoring progress and providing feedback, and assessing performance on a regular basis.
Line managers and employee engagement
The increasing focus on employee engagement in the workplace means that this aspect of the line manager’s role in people management can be particularly influential. Our work on the relationship between line management and employee engagement and well-being highlights line managers’ crucial role in balancing the levels of challenge at work – which motivate and engage employees – with the right levels of support – which can reduce stress and support employees’ well-being. It’s therefore especially important to pay close attention to how the organisation selects, develops and manages the performance of line managers. Again this puts onus on the L&D function to ensure line managers are able to carry out this new responsibility. The report resulted in development of a series of practical tools for developing line managers to support employee engagement, health and well-being.
Supporting line managers
To deliver good people management, line managers themselves need to be managed within a strong, supportive framework to enable them to develop self-confidence and a robust sense of their own role in the organisation. This further emphasises the need for appropriate training and development for those newly-appointed in a line management role.
Training line managers
The critical role that line managers play in enabling employee performance and well-being emphasises the need for appropriate training and development for those newly-appointed in a line management role. Yet, front-line managers are often promoted from operational roles and might not have any formal management education at the time of their appointment. Furthermore, our 2016 Absence management survey showed that less than half of organisations participating in the survey provided training for dealing with short-term and long-term absence to line managers.
Our podcast on training line managers discusses the importance of developing line managers and the different strategies organisations have found successful. A general overview on all aspects of management development can be found in our factsheet. A specific example of an effective training programme for line managers to support employee mental health in the financial sector in the UK is presented in our report A new approach to line manager mental well-being training in banks.
Many of the qualities and skills that are associated with higher quality line management focus on the behaviours of the line managers involved. However, it's not enough to educate line managers in the behaviours required; organisations must also ensure they're developing the environment and culture in which line managers are actively encouraged and permitted to exhibit the identified behaviours. Our report Leadership: easier said than done outlines the key barriers to management and leadership within the organisational environment. L&D professionals are increasingly seeing their work move into this cultural impact area as they move away from simply booking courses.
We regularly track employee satisfaction with the different aspects of line management which provides important information on areas where the quality of management may be falling behind. Our report Real-life leaders: closing the knowing-doing gap provides further information on the gaps in line managers’ skills from the point of view of managers themselves, as well as HR and L&D practitioners.
The role of business partnering
There's a growing emphasis in HR and increasingly with L&D on business partnering, where the HR function is closely involved with supporting business strategy. This has enhanced the people management aspects of the line manager’s role. Line managers have the opportunity to develop responses and solutions to HR issues together with HR business partners with more immediacy and alignment to business strategy. For L&D, this ability to respond readily to line manager needs for their team creates a much closer and relevant function of the L&D team.
This enables both people and business issues to be considered in a wide range of decisions that will impact on organisational effectiveness. Because the relationship is ongoing, both sides build a better understanding and develop long-term strategies and solutions rather than the HR and L&D functions being brought in to manage issues as they arise. This proactive rather than reactive approach offers better support to operations and impact on the bottom line.
Managing line managers
Well-managed line managers are more likely to go on to lead high-performing teams. Senior management support and action on the development of line managers is critical. The relationships between line managers and their own managers and with senior management tend to make a significant difference to their willingness to display discretionary behaviour in their own management activities, as they reflect the culture of an organisation in their behaviour. For HR and L&D initiatives to be truly successful with line managers, they need to be offered with full senior stakeholder engagement and endorsement.
Generally line managers are more likely to display the positive behaviours associated with higher levels of performance from those they are managing if they experience:
- good working relationships with their own managers
- good career opportunities and support to progress their careers with effective people development
- a positive work-life balance
- the capacity to participate and feel involved in decision-making
- an open organisational culture that enables them to air a grievance or discuss matters of personal concern
- a sense of job security.
Useful contacts and further reading
ACAS. (2016) Managing people. London: Acas.
LOPEZ-COTARELO, J. (2011) HR discretion: understanding line managers' role in human resource management. In: Academy of Management annual meeting, 12th-16th August 2011, San Antonio, Texas.
HASSAN, F. (2011) The frontline advantage. Harvard Business Review. Vol 89, No 5, May. pp106-114.
JACOBS, K. (2013) Whose job is it anyway? Human Resources. February. pp36-39.
SWEENEY, C. (2016) Engaging line managers in diversity and inclusion. Company Secretary's Review. Vol 39, No 20, January. pp155-156.
TRULLEN, J., STIRPE, L, BONACHE, J. and VALVERDE, M. (2016) The HR department’s contribution to line managers’ effective implementation of HR practices, Human Resource Management Journal. Vol 26, No 4, October. pp449-470.
TRUSS, C., SOANE, E. and ALFES, K. (2013) The relationship between line manager behaviour, perceived HRM practices, and individual performance: examining the mediating role of engagement. Human Resource Management. Vol 52, No 6, November/December 2013 pp839-859.
CIPD members can use our online journals to find articles from over 300 journal titles relevant to HR.
Members and People Management subscribers can see articles on the People Management website.
This factsheet was last updated by Ksenia Zheltoukhova.
Ksenia Zheltoukhova: Head of Research
Ksenia is responsible for leading research innovation and capability development at the CIPD. She joined in 2013 as a Research Adviser, leading a number of projects, including a major research programme, Profession for the Future, investigating principles-based approach to professional standards as a way of driving ethical and sustainable decision-making by the business.
Prior to the CIPD, Ksenia was a researcher at The Work Foundation, working on Future of HR, Leadership, and Health and Well-being streams. With a background in organisational psychology, she holds a PhD in Management from Lancaster University, where her research examined the effects of leaders’ sacrificial behaviours on followers.
Explore our related content
Episode 114: Recorded at the CIPD’s annual Learning and Development Show, this month’s speakers discuss the importance of developing line managers and the different strategies they’ve found successful.
Introduces management development, focusing on how to identify development needs and the techniques involved in developing managers
Understand how to build an effective approach to performance management, including the tools that can support it