Employee turnover can have negative impact on an organisation’s performance. By understanding the reasons behind staff turnover, employers can devise recruitment and retention initiatives that reduce turnover and increase employee retention.

This factsheet looks at turnover trends in the UK, which vary considerably across occupations, industries and regions. It outlines the methods for measuring turnover as well as the cost of losing employees. The factsheet also examines the reasons why people leave organisations and recommends ways to improve staff retention through methods such as consultation, fair treatment, flexibility, and offering career development.

Employers need to be aware of employee turnover rates in their organisation, and understand how these affect the organisation’s performance and ability to achieve its strategic goals. Depending on the size of the business, an appreciation of the levels of turnover across occupations, locations and particular groups of employees (such as identified high performers) can help inform a comprehensive resourcing strategy.

Tools such as confidential exit surveys and staff attitude surveys can help managers understand why people leave the business, and enable appropriate action to be taken to address it. Ensuring that new joiners have realistic expectations of their job and receive sufficient induction training will help to minimise the number of people leaving the organisation within the first six months of employment.

Measuring the levels and costs of employee turnover is vital in building the business case and informing the design of targeted recruitment and retention initiatives. This can be a powerful tool for winning line manager and board-level support for resourcing activities.

Employee turnover

Employee turnover refers to the proportion of employees who leave an organisation over a set period (often on a year-on-year basis), expressed as a percentage of total workforce numbers.

At its broadest, the term is used to encompass all leavers, both voluntary and involuntary, including those who resign, retire or are made redundant, in which case it may be described as ‘overall’ or ‘crude’ employee turnover. It's also possible to calculate more specific breakdowns of turnover data, such as redundancy-related turnover or resignation levels, with the latter particularly useful for employers in assessing the effectiveness of people management in their organisations.

Employee retention

Retention relates to the extent to which an employer retains its employees and may be measured as the proportion of employees with a specified length of service (typically one year or more) expressed as a percentage of overall workforce numbers.

Turnover trends

Our Resourcing and talent planning survey reports give a median ‘crude’ or ‘overall’ employee turnover rate for the UK sample collected. The median rate of labour turnover is on the increase, following a steady decline since 2005, although not all organisations in the survey provide turnover figures for their workplace.

Turnover levels can vary widely between occupations and industries. The highest levels are typically found in retailing, hotels, catering and leisure, call centres and among other lower paid private sector services groups.

Levels also vary from region to region. The highest turnover rates tend to be found where unemployment is lowest and where it is relatively easy for people to secure desirable alternative employment.

When does employee turnover become problematic?

There is no set level at which point employee turnover starts to have a negative impact on an organisation’s performance. Much depends on the type of labour markets in which the organisation competes. In some cases, employee turnover can have positive benefits organisations- for example when a poor performer is replaced by a more productive employee.

Where it’s relatively easy to find and train new employees quickly and at reasonably low cost (that is where the labour market is 'loose'), it’s possible to sustain high quality levels of service provision despite having a high turnover rate.

Especially where skills are relatively scarce, where recruitment is costly or where it takes several weeks to fill a vacancy, turnover is likely to be problematic for the organisation. The more valuable the employees in question are - for instance where individuals have specialist skills or where they have developed strong relationships with customers - the more damaging the resignation, particularly when they move on to work for competitors.

Employers should pay attention to the turnover of staff regardless of industry. The reasons behind turnover may highlight issues within the workforce such as dissatisfaction with career progression opportunities. Employers should still strive to address any issues and create a positive working environment for their employees.

Measuring employee turnover

Organisations may track their ‘crude’ or ‘overall’ turnover rates on a month by month or year by year basis, expressed as a percentage of employees overall. The formula is simply:

Total number of leavers over period x 100
Average total number employed over period

The total figure is for all leavers, including those who retire, or leave involuntarily due to dismissal or redundancy. It also makes no distinction between functional (that is, beneficial) turnover and that which is dysfunctional.

Crude turnover figures are often used in published surveys of labour turnover as they tend to be more readily available and can be useful as a basis for benchmarking against other organisations.

However, it’s also useful to calculate a separate figure for voluntary turnover (resignations), as such departures are unplanned and often unpredictable (unlike planned retirements or redundancies for instance) and can have a particularly adverse impact on the business.

It may also be helpful to consider some of the more complex employee turnover indices, which take account of characteristics such as seniority and experience, or calculate figures for different functions and locations of the business to highlight areas where turnover is higher than others.

Measuring employee retention

A stability index indicates the retention rate of experienced employees. Like turnover rates, this can be used across an organisation as a whole or for a particular part of it. The usual calculation for the stability index is:

Number of staff with service of one year or more x 100
Total number of staff in post one year ago

Costing employee turnover

The costs associated with employee turnover related to resignations rather than redundancies may be estimated by calculating the average cost of replacing each leaver with a new starter in each major employment category. This figure can then be multiplied by the relevant turnover rate for that staff group to calculate the total annual cost of turnover.

The major categories of costs are:

  • administration of the resignation
  • recruitment and selection costs, including administration
  • covering the post during the period in which there is a vacancy
  • induction training for the new employee.

Many of these costs consist of indirect management or administrative staff time (opportunity costs), but direct costs can also be substantial where advertisements, agencies or assessment centres are used in the recruitment process.

More complex approaches to turnover costing give a more accurate and invariably higher estimate of total costs. These could include measures estimating, for example, the relative productivity of new employees during their first weeks or months in a role and that of resignees during the period of their notice (both likely to be lower than the productivity levels of established employees).

In practice, however, the vast majority of employers do not calculate the specific costs of employee turnover, as illustrated in our Resourcing and talent planning survey reports.

Employees resign for many different reasons. Sometimes it is the attraction of a new job or the prospect of a period outside the workforce that 'pulls' them. On other occasions they are 'pushed' as a result of dissatisfaction in their present jobs to seek alternative employment. These ‘push factors; range from a lack career opportunities to organisational changes. The move might also be prompted by a combination of both ‘pull’ and ‘push’ factors.

One key factor behind an individual’s decision to leave the organisation may be a poor relationship with a line manager, leading to disengagement. Find out more on in our factsheet on employee engagement and motivation.

Turnover in the first year of employment

In high-turnover industries in particular, a great deal of employee turnover consists of people resigning or being dismissed in the first few months of employment.

Poor recruitment and selection decisions, both on the part of the employee and employer, are usually to blame, along with poorly designed or non-existent induction programmes. Even when people stay past the first few months, the first impressions of a business can influence an employee’s decision to leave a business sooner rather than later.

Expectations are also often raised too high during the recruitment process, leading people to compete for and subsequently to accept jobs for which they are in reality unsuited.

Our recruitment factsheet gives an overview of effective recruitment, or read our factsheet for more on the importance of good induction.

Investigating why people leave

It’s important to understand why people leave the business. However, obtaining accurate information on reasons for leaving can be difficult. It’s important to appreciate that the reasons people give for their resignations can be untrue or only partially true. Individuals may be reluctant to voice criticism of their managers, colleagues or the organisation generally, preferring to give some less contentious reason for their departure.

Where exit interviews are used to ask about the reasons for leaving, the interviewer should not be a manager who has responsibility for the individual or who will be involved in future reference writing. Confidentiality should be assured and the purpose of the interview explained.

Using an external provider to conduct exit interviews will help employers capture more accurate data about why people are leaving, as individuals are more willing to be truthful when there is reassurance of anonymity.

Alternative approaches to collecting exit data involve the use of confidential attitude surveys for current employees including questions on intentions to leave, or confidential questionnaires sent to former employees on exit or a period of time after their departure.

It’s also important to consider the experiences of those still employed at the business; conducting an exit interview will gather useful data, but using information from current employees (such as employee surveys) will help pinpoint retention issues before they lead to people leaving.

The first steps when developing an employee retention strategy are to establish:

  • why employees are leaving
  • the impact that employee turnover has on the organisation, including the associated costs.

This data can be used to develop a costed retention strategy that focuses on the particular issues and causes of turnover specific to the organisation.

Examples of retention activities are offering more appealing pay and benefits and improving induction processes. However, according to our Resourcing and talent planning surveys, many organisations do not have specific retention strategies.

As well as basic pay and benefits, organisations should consider the following elements, all of which have been shown to play a positive role in improving retention and are likely to impact the working environment:

  • Job previews - Give prospective employees a realistic job preview at the recruitment stage - don’t oversell the job or minimise aspects of the role.

  • Career development and progression - Maximise opportunities for employees to develop skills and careers. It's also important to understand and manage people’s career expectations. Where promotions are not feasible, look for sideways moves that vary experience and make the work more interesting.

  • Consult employees - Ensure that employees have a 'voice' through consultative bodies, regular appraisals, attitude surveys and grievance systems. Where there is no opportunity to voice dissatisfaction and influence outcomes, resigning may be the only option. See more in our employee voice factsheet.

  • Be flexible - Wherever possible, accommodate individual preferences on working hours and times. As part of this, it's also important to monitor workload and ensure it is manageable within working hours

  • Pay attention to employee well-being - Avoid a culture of 'presenteeism' where people feel obliged to work longer hours than are necessary to impress management. Find out more in our Health and well-being at work survey report.

  • Treat people fairly - A perception of unfairness, whatever the management view of the issue, is a major cause of voluntary resignations. For example, perceived unfairness in the distribution of rewards is very likely to lead to resignations.

  • Defend your organisation against penetration by head-hunters and others seeking to attract your staff, for example by refusing to do business with agents who have poached staff in the past.

Books and reports

ACAS. (2010) Managing attendance and employee turnover. Advisory booklet. London: ACAS.

TAYLOR, S. (2014) Resourcing and talent management. 6th ed. London: Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development.

Visit the CIPD and Kogan Page Bookshop to see all our priced publications currently in print.

Journal articles

BERMAN-GORVIVE, M. (2014) To retain valued employees, don't wait until they have one foot out the door. HR Focus. May, Vol 91, No 5, pp13-15.

CASTELLANO, S. (2013) Talent retention is a global challenge. T+D. November, Vol 67 No 11, p18.

FOX, A. (2014) Keep your top talent: the return of retention. HR Magazine. Vol 59, No 4, April. pp31-32,34-35,38-40.

HAMORI, M., KOYUNCU, B. and CAO, J. (2015) What high-potential young managers want. MIT Sloan Management Review. Vol 57, No 1, Fall. pp61-68.

LEE, T, HOM, P, EBERLY, M, LI, J. and MITCHELL, T. (2017) On the next decade of research in voluntary employee turnover. Academy of Management Perspectives, Vol 31 No 3. pp201-221.

CIPD members can use our online journals to find articles from over 300 journal titles relevant to HR.

Members and People Management subscribers can see articles on the People Management website.

This factsheet was last updated by Melanie Green.

Melanie Green: Research Associate

Melanie joined the CIPD in 2017 as a Research Associate, specialising in learning & development and skills research. Prior to the CIPD, Mel worked as an HR practitioner in a technology organisation, working on a variety of learning and development initiatives, and has previous worked as a researcher in an employee engagement and well-being consultancy. 

Mel holds a master’s degree in Occupational Psychology from University of Surrey, where she conducted research into work-life boundary styles and the effect of this on employee well-being and engagement.


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