COVID-19 is classed as a pandemic by the World Health Organization. As the risk of infection from the virus continues, it poses an ongoing challenge to many organisations.

This factsheet provides an overview of the current coronavirus situation. It explains what the virus is and gives advice on how employers should respond to the threat and support employees by being prepared, particularly looking after employees’ health and safety and developing flexible resourcing plans.

We're updating this factsheet regularly to ensure it reflects government advice as this evolves.

See the full A-Z list of all CIPD factsheets.

Coronaviruses (CoV) are a large family of viruses that cause illness ranging from the common cold to more severe diseases such as MERS-CoV and SARS (Cov). The official name for this new disease is COVID-19. 

COVID-19 spreads where there is close contact between people. If someone with the virus coughs or exhales and is close to someone else, the other person could catch it by breathing in droplets of infected fluid. People can also catch it by touching contaminated surfaces or objects. Most people infected with the virus have mild symptoms and recover, but some experience more serious illness and may need hospital care. People over 40 seem to be more vulnerable, as are those with weakened immune systems or an underlying health condition such as diabetes, cancer and lung disease. The virus also appears to have a disproportionate impact on people from ethnic minorities.

The incubation period of COVID-19 is between 2 and 14 days. Common signs of infection include a high temperature, a new continuous cough, or a change or loss of sense of smell, though there are other symptoms, and some people who have the virus are asymptomatic. Symptoms of the new ‘Delta’ variant are more likely to be headache, sore throat and a runny nose, and could be mistaken for a bad cold.

In May 2021, the UK Chief Medical Officers recommended the level should move from 4 to 3 meaning that the virus is in general circulation. Since then, a ‘Delta’ variant has been the main one in circulation in the UK and infection continues to be prevalent, particularly in some areas of the UK. In November 2021 the new Omicron variant was identified. 

Four vaccines have been approved for use in the UK so far, and the NHS continues to roll out an effective nationwide vaccination programme. Read our guide for employers on preparing for the COVID-19 vaccination. From 11 November 2021, anyone working or volunteering in a care home in England needs to be fully vaccinated against COVID-19, unless exempt – see the Government’s operational guidance. On 9 September the Government launched a consultation on protecting patients by mandating vaccination for frontline health and social care staff in EnglandNew advice from the Joint Committee on Vaccination and Immunisation in November 2021 for the booster programme is for all adults aged 18 and over or at higher risk from COVID-19 to be offered a booster when the NHS calls them forward.

As infection from the virus continues to circulate, all employers and workers are still being affected in some way. People’s health and wellbeing, and measures to help prevent the virus from spreading, should still be at the heart of every employer’s response.

We’ll continue to signpost latest developments, collate and publish updated resources, more detailed guidance and FAQs on our Responding to the coronavirus hub.

  • Keep up to date with government and public health advice: This is still a fast-moving issue. Employers should keep up to date with the situation as it develops, and refer employees who are concerned about infection, using official and expert medical sources such as GOV.UK, the National Health Service and NHS 111online coronavirus service. Government data on COVID-19 is updated regularly.

  • Continue to use COVID-secure health and safety measures to help prevent the infection’s spread, including:

    • Make sure your workplace is clean and hygienic.
    • Promote regular and thorough hand-washing by everyone.
    • Provide all employees with an alcohol-based hand rub.
    • Good ventilation to encourage effective air flow.
    • Implement the Working safely during coronavirus (COVID-19) guidance.

  • In February 2021, the Prime Minister announced a roadmap for England to start easing lockdown restrictions as a staged process and in July the final stage of easing restrictions was implemented. This means limits on social contact ended, face masks were no longer legally required, and the one-metre-plus rule also ended. Government no longer advises people to work from home where possible. On 14 September the Prime Minister unveiled England’s plan for tackling COVID during autumn and winter; ‘Plan A’ promotes testing and vaccines, including booster jabs, with a reserve ‘Pan B’ if the NHS is overwhelmed (which includes measures like returning to work from home and face masks). However, in response to the new Omicron variant, new measures came into force on 30 November 2021 in England, including the reintroduction of compulsory face coverings in shops and on public transport. See the CIPD FAQs on what the autumn and winter plan means for employers and new CIPD FAQs relating to the Omicron variant. Slightly different measures apply in Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland. The Scottish Government continues to advise homeworking where possible.

  • Keep up to date with government advice on travelling overseas during the pandemic. Following the new Omicron variant, from 30 November, all international arrivals to the UK must take a Day 2 PCR test and self-isolate until they receive a negative test. Check further information for travel to England, Scotland, Northern Ireland and Wales from abroad. The travel restrictions for entering England now mean countries are designated as red list or non-red list. There are different rules according to whether or not individuals are fully vaccinated. Check the COVID-19 testing and quarantine rules for the red list of countries and territories.

  • There is a legal requirement to self-isolate if you are told to by NHS Test and Trace. The government and NHS advice is that anyone with certain symptoms (such as a high temperature, a new continuous cough, or a change or loss of sense of smell) must self-isolate at home and get a PCR test. You should also self-isolate if you’re waiting for a coronavirus test result or have tested positive for the virus. Fully vaccinated people in the UK no longer have to self-isolate if a contact tests positive for COVID unless a close contact tests positive for the new Omicron variant. All contacts of suspected Omicron cases must self-isolate, regardless of their age or vaccination status. They will be contacted by NHS Test and Trace. 

  • Community testing plays a key role in controlling the spread of the virus in all four nations, and there has also been an expansion of employer-led testing. The guidance covers who is eligible, how to get tested and the different types of tests. It offers an employer portal for employers to refer essential workers who are self-isolating because they, or members of their household, have symptoms. There’s also an online self-referral portal for those eligible to apply for a PCR test. In England everyone without coronavirus symptoms can access free lateral flow tests.

    Under the NHS Test and Trace system in England, anyone who develops COVID-19 symptoms should be tested, and if they test positive their recent contacts can be traced. There's an app for England and Wales, Northern Ireland has its StopCOVID NI app and Scotland has the Protect Scotland app. Employees who need to self-isolate are entitled to Statutory Sick Pay. The government has published guidance for workers who are self-isolating.

    Employers who force or allow staff to come to work when they should be self-isolating will also be liable for fines of up to £10,000.

  • The government has published a COVID-19 recovery strategy, Our plan to rebuild. The devolved administrations of Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland issued different guidance. The government has also published 'COVID-19 secure’ guidelines to help employers reduce risks surrounding a return to the workplace and these guidelines have been updated to reflect the final stage 4 of the roadmap in England.

  • The government introduced a package of measures to support businesses and workers during the pandemic:

    • The Coronavirus Job Retention Scheme (CJRS) - also known as the furlough scheme, ended on 30 September 2021. 

    • Small business grants, business rate holidays for some sectors and other targeted grants and loan facilities. Find out what financial business support measures are available in the various UK nations. 

    • The Self-Employed Income Support Scheme closed on 30 September 2021.

    • There's a ‘Kickstart Scheme’ in Great Britain to fund six-month work placements aimed at 16 to 24 year olds who are on Universal Credit and deemed to be at risk of long-term unemployment. There’s also a £1,500 grant per hire for set up and training costs.

People’s health, safety and wellbeing remains crucial, as our Returning to the workplace guide makes clear. Employers have a statutory duty of care for people’s health and safety, and to provide a safe place to work, but there’s also a strong moral responsibility to ensure that employees feel safe and secure in their employment. Employers’ duty of care includes anyone who is working remotely. Employers should continue to carry out a thorough COVID-19 risk assessment.

We’ve worked in partnership with organisations including the Society of Occupational Medicine, Acas, Business in the Community and Mind to produce a toolkit to guide organisations through taking a holistic approach to managing a safe return to a workplace. Guidance from the Chartered Institute of Ergonomics & Human Factors advises on creating safe working practices during COVID-19. Our Planning for hybrid working guidance takes organisations through key steps in planning for a safe, flexible and phased return to workplaces..

As well as following the latest government guidance, employers should consider the following three key questions:

  • Do people feel sufficiently safe?
  • Will it enhance performance?
  • Are you listening to your people?

The success of the national vaccination programme is very encouraging and helping to reduce infection and prevent serious illness, particularly where people are fully vaccinated. However, some people of working age are not fully vaccinated, and employers must continue to follow guidance on reducing COVID-19 risk. Employers should follow official public health and medical advice closely and advise employees on what to do if they think they may have caught the virus, or are at risk of contracting it. If you’ve shifted your workforce to home working, make sure you keep in touch with people and look out for their wellbeing as it can be an isolating experience. Encourage managers to have supportive one-to-ones with people and set up virtual team meetings.

Self-isolation, shielding, and Statutory Sick Pay (SSP)

Some employees may need to self-isolate based on official guidance. There’s more on how employers should handle a self-isolation period for employees in our Protecting your workforce FAQs.

At the start of the pandemic, the government announced a range of new measures around SSP. If an employee or worker needs to self-isolate, they are entitled to SSP from the first day they’re unable to work. See the Acas guidance on SSP for self-isolation. It does not apply to employees who need to quarantine on return from another country.

Employers with fewer than 250 employees can no longer claim a refund for COVID-19 related SSP costs (up to two weeks per employee)
but must still pay sick pay from day one for a COVID-19 related sickness absence. In England, people on low incomes who need to self-isolate and aren’t exempt from self-isolation can claim a £500 Test and Trace Support payment.

Many people needed to ‘shield’ if classed as 'clinically extremely vulnerable'. There is no longer formal shielding for these groups of people in England but employers still have a legal responsibility to protect their employees and others from risks to their health and safety. The HSE has advice on how to protect vulnerable workers during COVID. There’s different advice for protection of these people in Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland.

Medical evidence for SSP

Employees can self-certify for the first seven days, as normal. Government advice is that employers should use discretion around the need for medical evidence beyond that for absence where an employee has to self-isolate in the current exceptional circumstances. The government has introduced a temporary alternative to the fit note for the duration of the COVID-19 outbreak whereby those in self-isolation can obtain a notification via NHS 111 to use as evidence for absence from work. Employers can check if an isolation note is valid using an online service.

An alternative option to providing sick pay is to allow people who are asked to self-isolate, but are not unwell, to work from home wherever possible, and continue to pay as normal.

Many organisations are treating sickness absence related to COVID-19 (including that due to people self-isolating) outside of their normal sickness absence reporting system. Over the coming months some employees may need to self-isolate multiple times (for example, until they receive a negative test result for the virus) and should not be unfairly penalised as part of a trigger system that uses trigger points to highlight absence patterns that could be of concern. This includes people who are suffering from ‘Long COVID’.


Employers should be as supportive as possible towards employees who are home schooling and/or have to juggle last-minute childcare.

Employers should consider flexible approaches to how people can carry out their role – there’s more on the options employers could consider in our Business continuity FAQs.

  • Reassure employees if they have concerns about the risk of infection, and keep them well informed about your organisation’s policies and contingency plans, particularly in relation to the specific guidelines for employees who have been in contact with an infected person or have symptoms of the virus.

  • People professionals and employers need to be aware that some people who contract COVID-19 may experience ongoing long-term symptoms, broadly known as ‘long COVID’, even if they initially had a mild illness. The UK’s REACT-2 studies show that over a third of people who had COVID-19 reported symptoms lasting at least 12 weeks.

  • More research is needed to understand the illness, but organisations need to provide support for any employees experiencing long-term health impacts, including educating line managers about the condition, adjustments to working hours, phased return to work, and access to occupational health and/or counselling services if needed. Visit our hub page with long COVID resources. We've worked in partnership with Society of Occupational Medicine and other organisations to produce advice leaflet for employees on recovering from Long COVID and returning to work. There’s also a guide for managers.

  • Make sure everyone, including managers, understands which sick pay and leave policies apply and how these will be implemented. Actively communicate this advice with your people, customers and suppliers.

  • Implement an internal communication strategy so that employees are aware of measures being taken to manage the situation in your organisation. Ensure that line managers are regularly informed about the organisation’s contingency and return-to-work plans and how to discuss the situation with any concerned employees. They also need to know and where to signpost people to for further advice or support, including employee assistance programmes and/or counselling.

  • Promote the resources you have available to support people’s health and wellbeing generally, including those through an employee assistance programme. If large numbers of people are still working from home where this is possible, provide ongoing support and communications. Some could start to feel socially isolated after such a long period based at home . Make sure you listen to any concerns, and that they take care of their mental wellbeing. Supporting employees’ mental wellbeing is crucial whether or not people are attending a place of work or continuing to work from home indefinitely. We’ve worked with the Society of Occupational Medicine and the Royal College of Psychiatrists to produce a Sustaining work-related mental health post-COVID-19 toolkit.

  • The risk of infection from the virus is still present. Keep in mind anyone who may be more at risk due to being clinically vulnerable, and/or due to a pre-existing health condition, or disability, ethnicity, age, or pregnancy, or because they were unable or unwilling to be vaccinated, and be aware of the additional duties you have as an employer to specific groups of employees.

  • As part of your contingency plan, introduce more flexible resourcing strategies to maintain essential services or production in case of staffing shortages due to people becoming ill and/or self-isolating. If roles can’t be performed at home and are essential, consider more innovative resourcing solutions that may need to be deployed, such as split shifts to cover essential operations or services.

  • Include provision for hybrid working to help facilitate a safe return to workplaces when the time is right – our research shows that post-pandemic, the majority of workers want to continue to work from home at least some of the time, presenting new opportunities for organisations to establish new ways of working. Hybrid working also provides other opportunities for organisations in terms of reducing estate and facilities costs, enabling employee wellbeing and supporting inclusion and diversity. There's more in our Planning for hybrid working guide.

  • Maximise the use of technology to facilitate remote contact, for example, video conferencing to facilitate remote meetings. For customer-facing organisations, consider introducing or maximising the use of self-service options and online services. Issue staff with laptops and IT support so they can work remotely wherever possible. Support their health and safety, for example by carrying out risk assessments using self-completion questionnaires that can be completed remotely.

  • Increased sickness absence may create a need for other employees, if willing, to work longer hours to keep your business going. If this happens, you will need to comply with the Working Time Regulations 1998 to ensure appropriate length of daytime working hours, night shifts and rest breaks. In 2020 the government changed the rules on carrying over annual leave during COVID-19 and workers who didn't take all their statutory annual leave can carry it over into the next two leave years.


UK Government – Coronavirus latest information and advice

UK Government - Coronavirus work and financial support

Scottish Government – Coronavirus in Scotland

Welsh Government - Coronavirus

Northern Ireland - Coronavirus

National Health Service - Coronavirus (COVID-19) 

Acas – Coronavirus advice for employers and employees

World Health Organization - Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic

Books and reports

DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND SOCIAL CARE. (2020) Coronavirus action plan. London: DHSC.

DEPARTMENT FOR BUSINESS, ENERGY & INDUSTRIAL STRATEGY. (2020) Working safely during coronavirus (COVID-19). London: BEIS.

SOCIETY OF OCCUPATIONAL MEDICINE (2021) COVID-19 return to work guide: for recovering workers. London: SOM.

WAKELING, A. (2021) The road to enlightenment: work and mental health in the pandemic. London: Acas.

Journal articles

BASKA, M. (2020) Coronavirus: HR and facilities teams must work together to keep workplaces hygienic. People Management (online). 6 March.

CHURCHILL, F. (2020) Staff anxiety the biggest coronavirus challenge for businesses, survey findsPeople Management (online). 20 March.

CHURCHILL, F. (2021) Can employers force their staff to have the Covid vaccine? People Management (online). 25 February.

COX, J. (2021) How to handle staff nervous about returning to work. People Management (online). 4 August.

HOWLETT, E. (2020) Will workplace testing become mandatory? And how should HR approach it? People Management (online). 10 September.

HOWLETT, E. (2021) Should HR be worried about long Covid? People Management (online). 28 January.

HOWLETT, E. (2021) Navigating a safe and healthy return to the office. People Management (online). 27 May.

MILLS, E. and WEST, A. (2021) Can employers insist on staff returning to the office? People Management (online). 6 August.

OWEN, J. (2020) Majority of employees want to work from home for most of the week, research finds. People Management (online). 11 September.

STREET, B. (2021) Mitigating Covid’s unequal impact on the workforce’s mental health. People Management (online). 15 March.

SUFF, R. (2021) Vaccinations: just one piece of the return-to-workplace jigsaw. CIPD Voice. Issue 28. 12 April.

This factsheet was last updated by Rachel Suff: Senior Employee Relations Adviser, CIPD

Rachel informs CIPD policy thinking on health and wellbeing as well as employment relations. She has over 20 years’ experience in the employment and HR arena.

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